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Stainless Steel grades

A more comprehensive list of comparisons can be found here.


 

Type 304

Chemistry

Grade

C

Mn

Si

P

S

Cr

Mo

Ni

N

304

min.

max.

-

0.08

-

2.0

-

0.75

-

0.045

-

0.030

18.0

20.0

-

8.0

10.5

-

0.10

304L

min.

max.

-

0.030

-

2.0

-

0.75

-

0.045

-

0.030

18.0

20.0

-

8.0

12.0

-

0.10

304H

min.

max.

0.04

0.10

-

2.0

-

0.75

-0.045

-

0.030

18.0

20.0

-

8.0

10.5

-

Mechanical Properties

Table 2. Mechanical properties of 304 grade stainless steel

Grade

Tensile Strength (MPa) min

Yield Strength 0.2% Proof (MPa) min

Elongation (% in 50mm) min

Hardness

Rockwell B (HR B) max

Brinell (HB) max

304

515

205

40

92

201

304L

485

170

40

92

201

304H

515

205

40

92

201

304H also has a requirement for a grain size of ASTM No 7 or coarser.

Grade Specification Comparison

Possible Alternative Grades

Grade

UNS No

Old British

Euronorm

Swedish SS

Japanese JIS

BS

En

No

Name

304

S30400

304S31

58E

1.4301

X5CrNi18-10

2332

SUS 304

304L

S30403

304S11

-

1.4306

X2CrNi19-11

2352

SUS 304L

304H

S30409

304S51

-

1.4948

X6CrNi18-11

-

-

Type 316

Chemistry

Grade

 

C

Mn

Si

P

S

Cr

Mo

Ni

N

316

Min

-

-

-

0

-

16.0

2.00

10.0

-

Max

0.08

2.0

0.75

0.045

0.03

18.0

3.00

14.0

0.10

316L

Min

-

-

-

-

-

16.0

2.00

10.0

-

Max

0.03

2.0

0.75

0.045

0.03

18.0

3.00

14.0

0.10

316H

Min

0.04

0.04

0

-

-

16.0

2.00

10.0

-

max

0.10

0.10

0.75

0.045

0.03

18.0

3.00

14.0

-

Mechanical Properties

Table 2. Mechanical properties of 316 grade stainless steels.

Grade

Tensile Str
(MPa) min

Yield Str
0.2% Proof
(MPa) min

Elong
(% in 50mm) min

Hardness

Rockwell B (HR B) max

Brinell (HB) max

316

515

205

40

95

217

316L

485

170

40

95

217

316H

515

205

40

95

217

Note: 316H also has a requirement for a grain size of ASTM no. 7 or coarser.

Possible Alternative Grades

Grade

UNS
No

Old British

Euronorm

Swedish
SS

Japanese
JIS

BS

En

No

Name

316

S31600

316S31

58H, 58J

1.4401

X5CrNiMo17-12-2

2347

SUS 316

316L

S31603

316S11

-

1.4404

X2CrNiMo17-12-2

2348

SUS 316L

316H

S31609

316S51

-

-

-

-

-

Note: These comparisons are approximate only.

Type 310

Chemistry

Grade

C

Mn

Si

P

S

Cr

Mo

Ni

N

310

min.

max.

-

0.25

-

2.00

-

1.50

-

0.045

-

0.030

24.0

26.0

-

19.0

22.0

-

310S

min.

max.

-

0.08

-

2.00

-

1.50

-

0.045

-

0.030

24.0

26.0

-

19.0

22.0

-

Mechanical Properties

Grade

Tensile Strength (MPa) min

Yield Strength 0.2% Proof (MPa) min

Elongation (% in 50mm) min

Hardness

Rockwell B (HR B) max

Brinell (HB)
max

310

515

205

40

95

217

310S

515

205

40

95

217

Type 301

The properties for Grade 301 are specified for flat rolled product (plate, sheet and coil) in ASTM A666. Similar but not identical mechanical properties are specified

 in EN 10088.2 and JIS G4305 and in proprietary specifications.

Typical compositional ranges for grade 301 stainless steels are given in table 1.

Table 1. Composition ranges for 301 grade stainless steel

Grade

C

Mn

Si

P

S

Cr

Mo

Ni

N

301

ASTM A666

min.

max.

-

0.15

-

2.0

-

1.0

-

0.045

-

0.030

16.0

18.0

-

6.0

8.0

-

0.10

301L

JIS G4305

min.

max.

-

0.03

-

2.0

-

1.0

-

0.045

-

0.030

16.0

18.0

-

6.0

8.0

-

0.20

1.4318/301LN

EN 10088-2

min.

max.

-

0.03

-

2.0

-

1.0

-

0.045

-

0.015

16.5

18.5

-

6.0

8.0

0.10

0.20

 

 

 

-

Stainless steel is not a single material but the name for a family of corrosion resistant steels. Like many scientific discoveries the origins of stainless steel lies in a serendipitous accident. In 1913 Sheffield, England, Harry Brearley was investigating the development of new steel alloys for use in gun barrels. He noticed that some of his samples didn’t rust and were difficult to etch. These alloys contained around 13% chromium.

The first application of these steels was in cutlery for which Sheffield subsequently became world famous. Simultaneous work in France led to the development of the first austenitic stainless steels.

Worldwide demand for stainless steel is increasing at a rate of about 5% per annum. Annual consumption is now well over 20 million tonnes and is rising in areas such as the construction industry and household appliances. New uses are being continuously found for the attractive appearance, corrosion resistance, low maintenance and strength of stainless steel. Stainless steel is more expensive than standard grades of steel but it has greater resistance to corrosion, needs low maintenance and has no need for painting or other protective coatings. These factors mean stainless steel can be more economically viable once service life and life-cycle costs are considered.

All stainless steel are iron-based alloys that contain a minimum of around 10.5% Chromium. The Chromium in the alloy forms a self-healing protective clear oxide layer. This oxide layer gives stainless steel their corrosion resistance. The self healing nature of the oxide layer means the corrosion resistance remains intact regardless of fabrication methods. Even if the material surface is cut or damaged, it will self heal and corrosion resistance will be maintained.

Conversely, normal carbon steels may be protected from corrosion by painting or other coatings like galvanising. Any modification of the surface exposes the underlying steel and corrosion can occur.

The corrosion of different grades of stainless steel will differ with various environments. Suitable grades will depend upon the service environment. Even trace amounts of some elements can markedly alter the corrosion resistance. Chlorides in particular can have an adverse effect on the corrosion resistance of stainless steel.

Grades high in Chromium, Molybdenum and Nickel are the most resistant to corrosion.

Stainless steel designations

SAE

UNS designation

% Cr

% Ni

% C

% Mn

% Si

% P

% S

% N

Other

Austenitic

301

S30100

16–18

6–8

0.15

2

0.75

0.045

0.03

-

-

302

S30200

17–19

8–10

0.15

2

0.75

0.045

0.03

0.1

-

302B

S30215

17–19

8–10

0.15

2

2.0–3.0

0.045

0.03

-

-

304

S30400

18–20

8–10.50

0.08

2

0.75

0.045

0.03

0.1

-

304L

S30403

18–20

8–12

0.03

2

0.75

0.045

0.03

0.1

-

304N

S30451

18–20

8–10.50

0.08

2

0.75

0.045

0.03

0.10–0.16

-

310

S31000

24–26

19–22

0.25

2

1.5

0.045

0.03

-

-

310S

S31008

24–26

19–22

0.08

2

1.5

0.045

0.03

-

-

314

S31400

23–26

19–22

0.25

2

1.5–3.0

0.045

0.03

-

-

316

S31600

16–18

10–14

0.08

2

0.75

0.045

0.03

0.1

2.0–3.0 Mo

316L

S31603

16–18

10–14

0.03

2

0.75

0.045

0.03

0.1

2.0–3.0 Mo

316F

S31620

16–18

10–14

0.08

2

1

0.2

0.10 min

-

1.75–2.50 Mo

316N

S31651

16–18

10–14

0.08

2

0.75

0.045

0.03

0.10–0.16

2.0–3.0 Mo

321

S32100

17–19

9–12

0.08

2

0.75

0.045

0.03

0.10 max

Ti 5(C+N) min, 0.70 max

Ferritic

405

S40500

11.5–14.5

-

0.08

1

1

0.04

0.03

-

0.1–0.3 Al, 0.60 max

409

S40900

10.5–11.75

0.05

0.08

1

1

0.045

0.03

-

Ti 6 x C, but 0.75 max

429

S42900

14–16

0.75

0.12

1

1

0.04

0.03

-

-

430

S43000

16–18

0.75

0.12

1

1

0.04

0.03

-

-

430F

S43020

16–18

-

0.12

1.25

1

0.06

0.15 min

-

0.60 Mo (optional)

430FSe

S43023

16–18

-

0.12

1.25

1

0.06

0.06

-

0.15 Se min

Martensitic

403

S40300

11.5–13.0

0.6

0.15

1

0.5

0.04

0.03

-

-

410

S41000

11.5–13.5

0.75

0.15

1

1

0.04

0.03

-

-

414

S41400

11.5–13.5

1.25–2.50

0.15

1

1

0.04

0.03

-

-

416

S41600

12–14

-

0.15

1.25

1

0.06

0.15 min

-

0.060 Mo (optional)

416Se

S41623

12–14

-

0.15

1.25

1

0.06

0.06

-

0.15 Se min

420

S42000

12–14

-

0.15 min

1

1

0.04

0.03

-

-

420F

S42020

12–14

-

0.15 min

1.25

1

0.06

0.15 min

-

0.60 Mo max (optional)

431

S41623

15–17

1.25–2.50

0.2

1

1

0.04

0.03

-

-

440A

S44002

16–18

-

0.60–0.75

1

1

0.04

0.03

-

0.75 Mo

440B

S44003

16–18

-

0.75–0.95

1

1

0.04

0.03

-

0.75 Mo

440C

S44004

16–18

-

0.95–1.20

1

1

0.04

0.03

-

0.75 Mo

 

 

 

Steel Specifications

Standard Specific Links

 
 

 

NAMTEC

Free metallurgical support line: Call +44 (0)1709 722460 or email enquiries@namtec.co.uk

 

 

Grade 304 is the standard "18/8" stainless; it is the most versatile and most widely used stainless steel, available in a wider range of products, forms and finishes than any other. It has excellent forming and welding characteristics. The balanced austenitic structure of Grade 304 enables it to be severely deep drawn without intermediate annealing, which has made this grade dominant in the manufacture of drawn stainless parts such as sinks, hollow-ware and saucepans. For these applications it is common to use special "304DDQ" (Deep Drawing Quality) variants. Grade 304 is readily brake or roll formed into a variety of components for applications in the industrial, architectural, and transportation fields. Grade 304 also has outstanding welding characteristics. Post-weld annealing is not required when welding thin sections.

Grade 304L, the low carbon version of 304, does not require post-weld annealing and so is extensively used in heavy gauge components (over about 6mm). Grade 304H with its higher carbon content finds application at elevated temperatures. The austenitic structure also gives these grades excellent toughness, even down to cryogenic temperatures.

 

Grade 316 is the standard molybdenum-bearing grade, second in importance to 304 amongst the austenitic stainless steels. The molybdenum gives 316 better overall corrosion resistant properties than Grade 304, particularly higher resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride environments. It has excellent forming and welding characteristics. It is readily brake or roll formed into a variety of parts for applications in the industrial, architectural, and transportation fields. Grade 316 also has outstanding welding characteristics. Post-weld annealing is not required when welding thin sections.

Grade 316L, the low carbon version of 316 and is immune from sensitisation (grain boundary carbide precipitation). Thus it is extensively used in heavy gauge welded components (over about 6mm). Grade 316H, with its higher carbon content has application at elevated temperatures, as does stabilised grade 316Ti.

The austenitic structure also gives these grades excellent toughness, even down to cryogenic temperatures.

 


Disclaimer

Every effort is made to ensure that technical specifications are accurate. However, technical specifications included herein should be used as a guideline only. All specifications are subject to change without notice.